Janjang Ampek Puluah, Perwujudan Integrasi Zaman Kolonial

Beranjak dari Taman Monumen Proklamator Bung Hatta, Aku bergerak turun menyusuri Jalan Istana, melintas Plaza Bukittinggi, menyapa Jam Gadang, menapak di Jalan Minangkabau kemudian masuk ke Jalan Cindua Mato.

Selangkah kemudian, aku memasuki Pasar Atas. Sebagian besar kios masih tertutup karena aku terlalu pagi menyambanginya. Tak ada yang bisa kuperbuat, hanya beberapa kios yang sedang bersiap membuka diri, ditandai dengan si empunya yang sibuk menata barang dagangan.

Senyap.

Kini aku sudah berada di gerbang dengan pemandangan leretan curam anak tangga, dua ekor harimau mengawal gerbang di kiri-kanannya, sementara di ujung bawah sudah terlihat sekelumit keramaian perniagaan, mungkin itulah yang disebut dengan Pasar Banto.

Aku menuruninya perlahan sambil mulut berkomat kamit menghitung bilangan….Benar ternyata,  empat puluh anak tangga. Leretan anak tangga inilah yang dikenal dengan nama Janjang Ampek Puluah. Konon empat puluh melambangkan jumlah anggota Niniak Mamak.

Tangga penghubung legendaris.

Sungguh cemerlang Louis Constant Westenenk, Si Asisten Residen Agam (Controleur Agam) yang berkolaborasi dengan Niniak Mamak (Lembaga Adat Minangkabau) dalam mencetuskan integrasi Pasar Atas-Pasar Bawah-Pasar Banto pada awal Abad XX. Kala itu Janjang menjadi fasilitas populer dalam konektivitas pasar. Daya fikir pemimpin pada masa itu, benar-benar diperas untuk menata kota Bukittinggi yang memiliki topografi berbukit dan tidak rata.

Aku tiba di gerbang bawah empat tiang bergaya Eropa dengan signboard besar “Janjang Ampek Puluah”. Toh, akhirya kuketahui bahwa gerbang bawah ini adalah bangunan baru, melengkapi gerbang bagian atas yang sudah lebih dahulu ada.

Gerbang bawah bergaya kolonial.
Gerbang Bawah tampak dari pertigaan Jalan Pemuda, Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan dan Jalan Soekarno Hatta.

Sementara di bagian samping dalam gerbang, terdapat prasasti yang berisi sejarah ringkas keberadaan janjang legendaris setinggi 5 meter dan lebar 4,6 meter yang dibangun pada masa lampau itu.  

Aku masih saja memandangi keanggunan fasilitas integrasi era kolonial ini, sementara warga tampak mulai berlalu lalang menaik turuni Janjang. Aku memang tak mau lekas meninggalkan area itu, tertegun memikirkan bagaimana perwujudan area ini ketika Janjang belum direalisasikan, mungkin tempatku berdiri itu masih berwujud perbukitan curam yang memisahkan ketiga aktivitas pasar.

Janjang Ampek Puluah hanyalah satu dari seian banyak Janjang di Bukittinggi. Rupaya Pemerintah Kolonial cukup serius dalam mengintegrsikan semua titik ekonomi kota kala itu. Perlu kamu ketahui bahwa masih ada Janjang Saribu, Janjang Koto Gadang dan Janjang Pasanggrahan di kota bernama lama Fort de Kock itu.

Di sisi luar gerbang, lalu lalang angkutan kota mulai mendenyutkan nadi kota. Penampakan angkuh Banto Trade Centre semakin menunjukkan bahwa daerah di sekitarnya dapat diandalkan sebagai mesin penggerak ekonomi kota.

Okay lanjut yuk….Kalau berjalan lurus kedepan, ada apa lagi ya?

Janjang Ampek Puluah, Integration Manifestation in Colonial Era

Moving from Bung Hatta Proclamator Monument Park, I moved down along Istana Street, across Plaza Bukittinggi, greeting Gadang Clock Tower, treading on Minangkabau Street and then entering Cindua Mato Street.

A step later, I entered Pasar Atas. Most of stalls were still closed because I was too early to visited it. There was nothing I could do, only a few stalls which were preparing to open, marked by its owners who was busy arranging their trade goods.

Quiet.

Now I was at a gate with a view of steep steps, two tigers guard it on either side, while at lower end was seen a bit of trading crowd, maybe that was Banto Market.

I slowly descended while my mouth muttering count numbers….It’s true, forty steps. These rows of stairs are known as Janjang Ampek Puluah. It is said that forty symbolizes number of Niniak Mamak members.

Legendary connecting stairs.

Brilliant thinking for Louis Constant Westenenk (Agam Resident Assistant/Controleur Agam) who collaborated with Niniak Mamak (Minangkabau Customary Institution) in sparking an idea to integrated of Pasar Atas (Upper Market) – Pasar Bawah (Lower market) – Banto Market in early 20th century. At that time, Janjang became a popular facility in market connectivity. The thinking power of leaders at that time was really squeezed in order to organize Bukittinggi city which had a hilly and uneven topography.

I arrived at lower gate with four poles and European style, also with a large signboard “Janjang Ampek Puluah“. After all, I finally knew that this lower gate was a new construction, complementing the upper gate which had already existed.

Colonial style lower gate.
The Lower Gate was seen from T-junction of Pemuda Street, Perintis Kemerdekaan Street and Soekarno Hatta Street.

While at inner side of lower gate, there is an inscription which contains a brief history of legendary Janjang existence as high as 5 meters and 4.6 meters in wide which was built in the past.

I was still staring at the elegance of this colonial era integration facility, while residents seemed to be moving up and down at Janjang. I really didn’t want to leave this area quickly, stunned to think of how form of this area when Janjang hadn’t been built, maybe where I stood was still in the form of steep hills which separating three market activities.

Janjang Ampek Puluah is just one of many Janjang in Bukittinggi. Apparently Colonial Government was quite serious in integrating all city economic spots at that time. You need to know that there are still Janjang Saribu, Janjang Koto Gadang and Janjang Pasanggrahan in the town which called as Fort de Kock in its past time.

At outer side of gate, public transportations start to generating city pulse. The appearance of imperious Banto Trade Center increasingly shows that the surrounding area can be relied upon as a driving force for city’s economy.

Okay let’s continue….If you go straight ahead, what else is there?